Principles of solar power generation

Time: 2017-06-21 Source:EastLux

Solar energy is energy from celestial bodies outside the earth (mainly solar energy). It is the huge energy released by the fusion of hydrogen nuclei in the sun at ultra-high temperatures. The vast majority of the energy required by humans comes directly or indirectly from the sun.
The fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas that we need for life are because various plants convert solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis and store them in the plant body, and then they are formed by animals and plants buried in the ground through a long geological age.
There are two main types of solar power: one is solar power (also known as solar power), and the other is solar thermal power (also known as solar thermal power).
Solar photovoltaic power generation is a type of power generation that directly converts solar energy into electrical energy. It includes four forms of photovoltaic power generation, photochemical power generation, photo-induction power generation and photobiological power generation. In photochemical power generation, there are electrochemical photovoltaic cells, photoelectrolytic cells and photocatalytic cells.
Structural principle
Solar power generation is a device that directly converts solar energy into electrical energy using battery modules. Solar cells are solid devices that use the electronic properties of semiconductor materials to achieve PV conversion. In the vast areas without power grids, they can easily realize power supply for users' lighting and life. To achieve complementarity. At present, from the perspective of civilian use, the technology research in foreign countries is becoming mature and the industrialization is beginning to be "photovoltaic-building (lighting) integration" technology, 
while the domestic main research and production is suitable for small-scale solar power generation for home lighting in areas without electricity system. 
The solar power generation system mainly includes: solar cell components (arrays), controllers, storage batteries, inverters, and users, that is, lighting loads. Among them, solar cell components and storage batteries are power systems, controllers and inverters are control and protection systems, and loads are system terminals.
Principle of power generation
Solar cells are devices that respond to a pair of light and can convert light energy into electricity. There are many kinds of materials that can produce photovoltaic effect, such as: single crystal silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, gallium arsenide, indium copper selenium, etc. Their power generation principles are basically the same, and now the crystalline silicon is used as an example to describe the photovoltaic power generation process. 
P-type crystalline silicon can be N-type silicon doped with phosphorus to form a PN junction.  
When the light hits the surface of the solar cell, part of the photons are absorbed by the silicon material; the energy of the photons is transferred to the silicon atoms, causing the electrons to transition, becoming free electrons gathering on both sides of the PN junction to form a potential difference, when the external is turned on In the circuit, under the effect of this voltage, there will be current flowing through the external circuit to produce a certain output power. 
The essence of this process is: the process of converting photon energy into electrical energy.Principles of solar power generation(图1)